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Applies to doxycycline: oral capsule, oral capsule extended release, oral powder for suspension, oral syrup, oral tablet, oral tablet delayed release
Along with its needed effects, doxycycline may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.
Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur while taking doxycycline:
Incidence not known
Some side effects of doxycycline may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:
Incidence not known
For Healthcare Professionals
Applies to doxycycline: injectable powder for injection, oral capsule, oral delayed release capsule, oral delayed release tablet, oral kit, oral powder for reconstitution, oral syrup, oral tablet, oral and topical kitNervous system
Very common (10% or more): Headache (up to 26%)
Common (1% to 10%): Sinus headache
Rare (0.01% to 0.1%): Bulging fontanels (in infants), benign intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri [symptoms include blurred vision, scotomata, diplopia]), tinnitus
Frequency not reported: Hypoesthesia, increased intracranial pressure, paresthesia, somnolence, stupor, taste loss, drowsiness, amnesia, paresthesias of body areas exposed to sunlight, phrenic nerve paralysis after sclerotherapy
Postmarketing reports: Pseudotumor cerebri, headache, dizziness
Benign intracranial hypertension resulting in permanent loss of vision has been reported.
A 70-year-old female patient with no significant medical history suddenly developed a severe headache followed by vomiting about 15 minutes after the initial dose of this drug. The patient also experienced memory dysfunction; she could not remember the events of the afternoon prior to the dose of this drug and could not retain the information after she was reminded. The incident lasted about 30 minutes and she was transported to the hospital for further evaluation. No further cause, such as intoxication or trauma, could be elicited. Once at the hospital, the patient was able to remember the events of the afternoon and could retain new information, but amnesia regarding the events of the 30 minutes following the onset of the headache persisted. The patient's laboratory results, computerized tomography scan, MRI scan, cerebrospinal fluid, and electroencephalogram showed no pathology. When the patient was discharged 2 days later, the amnesia for the 30 minutes continued. After elimination of other symptomatic causes, the amnesia was concluded to be due to this drug because of the close relation of the dose and the onset of symptoms.Other
Very common (10% or more): Common cold (up to 22%), influenza symptoms (up to 11%)
Common (1% to 10%): Injury/accidental injury, pain, infection, fungal infection, influenza
Rare (0.01% to 0.1%): Candida infection/candidiasis, flushing, retrosternal pain
Frequency not reported: Malaise, overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms (superinfection)
Postmarketing reports: AstheniaGastrointestinal
Very common (10% or more): Nausea (up to 13.4%)
Common (1% to 10%): Nausea/vomiting, toothache, tooth disorder, dyspepsia, diarrhea, periodontal abscess, acid indigestion, upper abdominal pain, abdominal distention, abdominal pain, stomach discomfort, dry mouth
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Gum pain, heartburn/gastritis
Rare (less than 0.1%): Glossitis, dysphagia, enterocolitis, inflammatory lesions (with candidal/monilial overgrowth) in the anogenital region, esophagitis, esophageal ulcerations, pancreatitis, pseudomembranous colitis, Clostridium difficile colitis, stomatitis
Frequency not reported: Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, esophageal irritation, ulceration, epigastric burning, black hairy tongue, tooth discoloration/adult tooth staining, vomiting, enamel hypoplasia, staphylococcal enterocolitis
Postmarketing reports: Bloody diarrhea, colitis, constipation, superficial tooth discoloration
Numerous cases of esophageal ulceration have been reported. In most cases, the patients had taken their medication at bedtime, usually without enough liquid. Patients often presented with severe retrosternal pain and difficulty swallowing. Ulcerations generally resolved within a week after discontinuing the drug. In 1 case report, severe hiccups of 4-day duration associated with esophagitis followed the first dose of this drug.
Esophagitis and esophageal ulcerations have been reported in patients taking the capsule or tablet formulations of tetracycline-class antibiotics. Most of these patients took the drug immediately before going to bed.Musculoskeletal
Common (1% to 10%): Joint pain/arthralgia, back pain/back ache
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Muscle pain/myalgiaRespiratory
Common (1% to 10%): Nasopharyngitis, sore throat, sinus congestion, coughing, sinusitis, bronchitis, nasal congestion, pharyngolaryngeal pain
Frequency not reported: BronchospasmDermatologic
Common (1% to 10%): Rash (including maculopapular rash, erythematous rash), photosensitivity reaction/dermatitis
Rare (0.01% to 0.1%): Erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, exfoliative dermatitis, photoonycholysis, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS)
Frequency not reported: Nail discoloration, phototoxicity, photoallergic reaction, morbilliform rash, onycholysis, pustular rash
Postmarketing reports: Pruritus, urticaria
-Frequency not reported: Hyperpigmentation
In a double-blinded study, this drug was found to be more phototoxic than minocycline and demeclocycline. Paresthesias of the body areas exposed to sunlight may be early signs of sunburn reactions.
A case report of a possible photoallergic reaction described scaly erythema and vesicles on the face and neck associated with administration of this drug. Upon rechallenge, a flare with erythema, itching, and burning occurred in the same area.
Another case report was documented in Australian troops treated with 100 mg daily for malaria prophylaxis while on deployment in East Timor, a group of islands within the Malaysian archipelago located close to the equator. Of the 135 troops, 22 exhibited phototoxic reactions to low doses of this drug that resembled severe sunburn with erythematous plaques on the sun-exposed areas. The troops used a sunscreen containing oxybenzone.
An 11-year-old boy treated with this drug for brucellosis was evaluated for painless brown nail discoloration. This drug was initiated for brucellosis but stopped when the boy developed photosensitivity, but 15 days after the initiation of therapy brown nail discoloration developed. Other than the brown discoloration, the boy's physical condition was normal and the discoloration disappeared within 1 month.Genitourinary
Common (1% to 10%): Menstrual cramps, bacterial vaginitis, vulvovaginal mycotic infection
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Vaginal infection
Frequency not reported: Vaginal itch, vaginitis
Postmarketing reports: Vaginal candidiasis/moniliasis, anogenital moniliasisCardiovascular
Common (1% to 10%): Hypertension, increased blood pressure
Frequency not reported: Phlebitis (with IV administration)Hepatic
Common (1% to 10%): Increased AST
Rare (0.01% to 0.1%): Abnormal hepatic function, hepatic failure, hepatitis, hepatotoxicity, jaundice
Frequency not reported: Acute hepatocellular injury, cholestatic reactions, cholestatic hepatitis, fatty liver degeneration, transient increases in liver function testsMetabolic
Hypoglycemia in a nondiabetic patient has been reported.
Common (1% to 10%): Increased blood LDH, increased blood glucose
Rare (0.01% to 0.1%): Decreased appetite, porphyria
Frequency not reported: Hypoglycemia, anorexiaPsychiatric
Common (1% to 10%): Anxiety
Frequency not reported: Confusion, depression, hallucinationHypersensitivity
Common (1% to 10%): Anaphylactic reaction (including angioedema, exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus, pericarditis, hypersensitivity, serum sickness, Henoch-Schonlein purpura, hypotension, dyspnea, tachycardia, peripheral edema, urticaria)
Frequency not reported: Hypersensitivity reactions (including urticaria, angioneurotic edema, anaphylactic shock, anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid reactions, anaphylactoid purpura, serum sickness, hypotension, pericarditis, exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus, dyspnea, peripheral edema, tachycardia)
Postmarketing reports: Mild allergic reactionsHematologic
Rare (0.01% to 0.1%): Hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, eosinophilia
Frequency not reported: Increased prothrombin time, leukopenia, thrombocytopenic purpuraRenal
Rare (0.01% to 0.1%): Increased BUN/blood urea (dose-related)
Frequency not reported: Acute renal failureEndocrine
The long-term use of tetracyclines has been associated with microscopic brown-black discoloration of the thyroid gland; abnormal thyroid function has not been reported.
Rare (0.01% to 0.1%): Microscopic brown-black discoloration of the thyroid glandOcular
Frequency not reported: Diplopia, papilledema, loss of vision (associated with drug-induced benign intracranial hypertension), conjunctivitis, periorbital edemaImmunologic
-Frequency not reported: Autoimmune syndromes
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